Lovefield is an SQL-like, relational query engine for the Web implemented in JavaScript. In this codelab, you will build an offline-capable web application for analyzing stock market data. You will use Lovefield as the data access layer and learn about its powerful querying capabilities and intuitive SQL-like API.

What you’ll learn

  1. Setup steps for including Lovefield code in your application.
  2. Defining the database schema.
  3. Executing INSERT queries.
  4. Executing simple SELECT queries (column projection, value predicates, sorting).
  5. Executing complex SELECT queries (joins, aggregators, group by).
  6. Debugging and examining a query.
  7. Using parameterized queries.
  8. Using database observers to trigger UI updates.

In short, you will learn why and how to use Lovefield in your next real-world data-rich application, and you will gain a clear understanding of the functionality Lovefield provides.

What you’ll need


Basic familiarity with the concepts of relational databases and the relational data model is required to follow the exercises of this codelab. Familiarity with SQL (Structured Query Language) is not required, but is beneficial, especially when it comes to advanced topics like indexing and query optimization.

Stock Analyzer UI overview

The application user interface has four components:

  1. A drop-down list populated with the available search modes, "Stocks" and "Sectors".
  2. A drop-down list populated with either stocks or industry sectors, depending on which search mode is selected.
  3. A drop-down list populated with various time windows. Options are 5 days, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, YTD (year-to-date), and 1 year.
  4. A pane that displays query results as a 2D graph.

App users can search for “Stocks” or “Sectors” and specify a time window. The result graph updates as users examine different stocks/sectors/time-windows. Hovering over or touching the graph exposes additional information about a specific date.

Source code overview

All Lovefield-related code resides in lovefield_service.js, within a class called LovefieldService. Everything else is already implemented and is not the focus of this codelab.

File name

File contents


All HTML code.


All CSS code.


Logic for drawing graphs.


Logic related to fetching real-world stock market data from the network, using the Google Finance API.


AngularJS controller for interacting with all UI components related to building database queries.


Class used by the rest of the application to make calls to Lovefield's API.

This class is partially implemented. You will implement the remaining parts in this codelab.

LovefieldService class

The application calls the LovefieldService to fulfill its data-related needs. The following methods are unimplemented or only partially implemented. Each of them demonstrates a different part of Lovefield’s API, and you will implement them in this codelab.

Method name

Method description


Builds the database schema.


Inserts data fetched from the network to the database.


Retrieves the list of stocks for the “Stocks” search mode.


Retrieves the list of sectors for the “Sectors” search mode.


Retrieves a given company’s performance, within a given time window.


Retrieves a given industry sector’s performance, within a given time window.


Registers an observer for the “stock closing prices” query.


Registers an observer for the “sector closing prices” query.

One of Lovefield’s nicest features is its SQL-like API. Developers who are already familiar with SQL will find learning Lovefield APIs straightforward. To make it even easier, we're including the equivalent SQL queries for all steps in this codelab.

Download the zip file from Github.

Deploying and running the application

  1. Unzip the file you downloaded.
  2. Open a terminal inside the new folder.
  3. Start a local web server: python -m SimpleHTTPServer.
  4. Navigate to http://localhost:8000/src/step1/index.html

Start the codelab from step1 below by adding your code inside src/step1/lovefield_service.js. You can find the starting code for each step in the respective sub-folder, src/step1, src/step2 … etc.

In this step you are going to define the database schema used for holding the data for the Stock Analyzer application. The database schema describes the structure of the relational database. More specifically it describes the following:

The API entry point for defining the “schema” is lf.schema.create(), which in our case contains the two tables shown below.

Table1: HistoricalData

This table stores historical data about stocks. Each record refers to a given stock on a given day. For example:

{ Date: Thu Apr 10 2014 00:00:00 GMT-0700 (PDT), // Date Open: 565, // number High: 565, // number Low: 539.9, // number Close: 540.95, // number Volume: 4027743, // integer Stock: "GOOG" // string }

No primary key exists on the HistoricalData table.

Table2: StockInfo

This table stores information about each company. For example:

{ CompanyName: 'Google Inc.', // string Sector: 'Technology', // string Stock: 'GOOG' // string, primary key }

Note that the “Stock” field is the primary key of the StockInfo table, which means that it is also unique.

Take a look at how Javascript types map to Lovefield types in the schema spec  and then go ahead and implement the buildSchema() method on LovefieldService (search for LovefieldService.prototype.buildSchema_)  inside the lovefield_service.js file. If you get stuck, you can take a look at Lovefield’s “Quick Start” doc for some help.


  1. Get a schema builder instance by calling lf.schema.create() (need to pass two parameters to this call).
  2. Call createTable(‘TableName’), once for each table, to get a table builder instance and start calling methods on this instance to add columns to your table.
  3. Return the schema builder instance from the buildSchema_() method.

If you are encountering problems finishing this step, take a look at the complete answer here.

Once you've built the schema, reload the app and verify that the database has been created using the developer tools in your browser.

For Chrome, navigate to Resources > IndexedDB. You should see a database called “stocks” with two empty tables, as shown in the following screenshot.

For Firefox, you first need to enable the storage inspector by checking the "Storage" checkbox in developer tools settings, see more instructions here.


Let’s take a look at the following code snippet which resides in LovefieldService#getDbConnection() method.

var connectOptions = {storeType: lf.schema.DataStoreType.INDEXED_DB}; return this.buildSchema_().connect(connectOptions).then( function(db) { /* do something with db */ });

The optional connectOptions parameter specifies what kind of backing storage to use for persisting the data. In this codelab we will use IndexedDB (which is also the default value if connectOptions is omitted), so that the data is persisted locally and it becomes inspectable by Chrome/Firefox’s developer tools.

SQL equivalent


In this step you will implement the LovefieldService#insertData() method. This method is being called by the FetcherService class (already implemented) which grabs the data by making network requests to the Google Finance API. The method receives two Array parameters holding the raw data for each table. The fields for both sets of raw data match the schema we've defined. Take a look at the Lovefield API for inserting rows on the query builder docs , and populate both tables. You'll need to call insert(), not insertOrReplace(), as the latter requires a table to have a primary key, which is not the case for the HistoricalData table.

The raw rows are already converted to Lovefield rows within insertData() method, by calling the createRow() method (specifically this.hd_.createRow(...) and this.si_.createRow(...) respectively).

Verify tables are populated correctly

Reload the app and verify in the developer tools that both tables have been correctly populated. If the schema you created at the previous step is incorrect (for example missing columns, or wrong types) it will not be detected until in later steps (where spurious errors will be thrown).

Verify that the HistoricalData table is populated correctly. Open the developer tools and inspect a random record from the HistoricalData table. It should look as it does in the following screenshot. Make sure that all the columns are present and that they have the correct types (also ensure that there are no undefined/null values).

Now verify the same for the StockInfo table by comparing with the following screenshot.

If the tables are not populated correctly, you will have to:

  1. Fix the schema at the previous step (see the answer provided in the previous step, after the last hint).
  2. Clear IndexedDB and rerun the application. In order to clear IndexedDB, you will have to select each of the tables and click on the “clear” icon next to the “round arrow” icon at the bottom of the developer tools window.
  3. Re-run the application and verify that the tables are populated correctly this time.

SQL equivalent

INSERT INTO HistoricalData (Close, Date, High, Low, Open, Stock, Volume) VALUES (552.03, '30-Mar-15', 553.47, 548.17, 551.62, 'GOOG', 1281355), (123.03, '30-Mar-15', 153.47, 48.17, 151.62, 'AAPL', 362124);INSERT INTO StockInfo (Stock, CompanyName, Sector) VALUES ('AAPL', 'Apple Inc.', 'Technology'), ('GM', 'General Motors Company', 'Auto Manufacturers'), ('GOOG', 'Google Inc.', 'Technology'), ('MSFT', 'Microsoft Corporation', 'Technology'), ('NKE', 'Nike Inc.', 'Consumer Goods'), ('RL', 'Ralph Lauren Corp.', 'Consumer Goods'), ('TM', 'Toyota Motor Corp.', 'Auto Manufacturers'), ('TSLA', 'Tesla Motors Inc.', 'Auto Manufacturers'), ('TWTR', 'Twitter Inc.', 'Technology'), ('UA', 'Under Armour Inc.', 'Consumer Goods');

Next, you will implement SELECT queries and start populating the app’s user interface.

In this step you are going to populate the sectors/stock drop-down list depending on the current “search mode”.

Retrieving a list of all stocks

You can find the list of stocks in the StockInfo table’s Stock column.

Implement the LovefieldService#getStockList() method by writing a select query that retrieves all rows from the StockInfo table and only keeps the Stock column. Review the SELECT Query Builder docs for information on writing SELECT queries, and review the filters docs for information on selecting only the columns you're interested in.

To verify that your query works, reload the app, choose Stocks as the search mode, and click on the “Select Stocks” drop-down menu. It should be populated with stock codes as shown in the following screenshot.

Retrieving a list of industry sectors

Implement the LovefieldService#getSectorList() method by writing a query that retrieves all (distinct) industry sectors. This query is similar to the previous one as all the information resides in a single column of the StockInfo table. But you have to use an aggregation function to ensure that each industry sector is included only once in the result.

Once done, verify that the query works by switching to “Sectors” search mode and clicking on the drop-down menu. It should be populated with three industry sectors as shown in the following screenshot.

SQL equivalent


Retrieving closing values for a stock within a time window

In this step you are going to write a query to retrieve closing values for a given stock within a given time window sorted by date in ascending order. The information resides in the HistoricalData table’s Close and Date columns. Go ahead and implement LovefieldService#getStockClosingPrices(). This method receives three parameters. start/end indicate the time window of interest, stock indicates the stock to be analyzed. You will need to use all three parameters to properly build the query. Make sure to review the information on how to construct predicates.

var hd = db.getSchema().table(‘HistoricalData’); from(hd). where(lf.op.and( hd.Stock.eq(...), hd.Date.between(...))). exec();

Once done, verify that the query works. Reload the app, select “Stock” search mode, and then select any stock from the drop down menu. Select various time windows and the graph should update.

Voila! You can now start researching your next stock market moves!

SQL equivalent

SELECT * FROM HistoricalData WHERE (Date BETWEEN '27-Mar-15' AND '30-Mar-15') AND Stock == 'GOOG' ORDER BY Date ASC;

Retrieving average closing values for an industry sector within a time window

In this step you are going to write a query to retrieve average closing values for a given industry sector within a given time window. The information resides in two tables, which means that the query will have to join these two tables. The association between stocks and industry sectors resides in the StockInfo table, while the closing values for each stock resides in the HistoricalData table. Go ahead and implement LovefieldService#getSectorClosingPrices(). Create a query that returns the average closing value for each date, taking into account the closing values of all stocks that belong in the chosen sector, sorted by date in ascending order.

Once done, verify that the query works. Reload the app, choose “Sectors” search mode, and select any sector from the drop-down menu. The graph should update accordingly.

SQL equivalent

SELECT AVG(hd.Close), si.Sector, hd.Date FROM HistoricalData as hd, StockInfo as si WHERE hd.Stock == si.Stock AND (hd.Date BETWEEN '27-Mar-15' AND '30-Mar-15') AND si.Sector == 'Technology' GROUP BY si.Sector, hd.Date ORDER BY hd.Date ASC;

It is very common that a query you wrote needs to be debugged because it either

The explain() method allows the developer to get an insider look on how the query engine executes a given query, by returning the execution plan in a human readable format. The execution plan is a detailed list of steps that the database engine will perform in order to calculate the answer of a given query.

For example, let’s examine the query performed by getStockClosingPrices() which was implemented in the previous step and see whether we can improve its execution plan. In order to do so, store the query in a local variable and print out the result of the explain() method before executing it.

As a hint, you might update the query like this:

var q =; console.log(q.explain()); return q.exec();

Reload the app, perform a stock search and observe the output in the console. It should look similar to the following.

project() -order_by(HistoricalData.Date ASC) --select(value_pred(HistoricalData.Date between <value1>, <value2>)) ---select(value_pred(HistoricalData.Stock eq GOOG)) ----table_access(HistoricalData)

The execution plan is basically a tree data structure. Each node in the tree is an operation. The plan is executed from the bottom up. In our example the following operations will take place.

  1. table_access: The entire HistoricalData table is brought into memory.
  2. select: Rows that don’t correspond to the GOOG stock are filtered out.
  3. select: Rows that don’t fall within the specified time window are filtered out.
  4. order_by: Remaining rows are sorted based on the Date field.
  5. project: Columns that are not requested by the user are filtered out. In our case we requested all columns (by passing no params to select()) and therefore no columns are dropped.

The execution plan described above can be improved (in terms of performance), by eliminating the need for a full table scan of the HistoricalData table. This can be done by modifying the schema to create an index on the HistoricalData#Stock column. Go ahead and modify the LovefieldService#buildSchema_() method by adding the proposed index. If you get stuck, you can take a look at Lovefield’s “Quick Start” for an example schema definition that uses an index.

Once done, reload the app and re-examine the execution plan. It should now look as follows.

project() -order_by(HistoricalData.Date ASC) --select(value_pred(HistoricalData.Date between <value1>, <value2>)) ---table_access_by_row_id(HistoricalData) ----index_range_scan(HistoricalData.idx_stock, [GOOG, GOOG], natural)

Notice how there is no table_access operation anymore and the first select is also missing. Instead, an index_range_scan operation has shown up. The database engine is utilizing the index we just added to retrieve only those HistoricalData rows that correspond to the GOOG stock, eliminating the need for a full table scan followed by a filtering of rows that don’t correspond to the given stock. Optimizations like this one can make a huge difference on a real-world application.

Parameterized queries are queries where placeholders are used for some values. Before such a query can be executed all placeholders must be assigned a value. Most modern database engines support this feature, although it might be advertised using a different name (for example “prepared statements” or “query templates”).

The advantage of this approach is that under the covers the database engine will generate an execution plan only once and reuse it many times. The overhead of generating an execution plan can be significant for queries that are executed multiple times.

In our application there are two queries that are executed multiple times with different values each time and therefore they could be parameterized. Specifically the queries that are executed in methods getStockClosingPrices() and getSectorClosingPrices() are receiving three parameters each.

Go ahead and

  1. Take a look at Lovefield’s parameterized query API 
  2. Modify those methods such that instead of creating a brand new query every on every invocation, they are using simply re-using an existing query template.
return this.myParameterizedQuery_.bind([value1, value2, ...]).exec();

Once done reload the app and ensure that both stock and sector search modes still work.

The basics

A query observer is a function that gets called whenever the results of a given query are modified. Lovefield provides a very powerful DB observing mechanism via the db.observe() method. In short, any SELECT query can be observed, such that every time the results of that query are modified, observers get notified with a detailed list of the changes that happened. The information that is passed to observers is inspired by the Array.observe() API. The two most common scenarios triggering observers are listed below.

Observer triggered by data modification

The database is modified by UPDATE, INSERT or DELETE queries. For example consider the following snippet

var si = db.getSchema().getTable(‘StockInfo’); // Getting a list of all stocks (implemented at step 3 earlier). var q =; db.observe(q, function(changes) { console.log(changes); }); var stockInfoRow = si.createRow({ CompanyName: ‘Toyota Motor Corp’, Sector: ‘Auto Manufacturers’, Stock: ‘TM’ }); // Inserting a new row into the StockInfo table, which will trigger the observer registered above. db.insert().into(si).values([stockInfoRow]).exec();

It is worth noting that the observer is triggered only if the results of the observed query are modified. Also the changes object passed to the callback includes a detailed list of changes (additions/deletions).

Observer triggered by parameterized query.

Query observers can be combined with parameterizable queries as shown below.

var si = db.getSchema().getTable(‘StockInfo’); // Find the name of a company given its stock code (‘GOOG’, ‘TSLA’ etc). var q = db. select(si.CompanyName). from(si). where(si.Stock.eq(lf.bind(0))); db.observe(q, function(changes) { console.log(changes); }); q.bind([‘GOOG’]).exec(); // Triggers the observer. q.bind([‘TSLA’]).exec(); // Triggers the observer.

In the above example, even though no modification happened to the database, the observer gets triggered because a parameter of the observed query was bound to a different value (which causes the result of this query to be changed).

Utilizing observers to update the UI

In our example application we are already using two parameterized queries (implemented at step 6), but the app is currently not using observers to update the UI. In this exercise the app will be modified to use DB observers to update the UI as the user is making different selections in the available drop down lists. The instructions below will guide you through this process. Note that there will be no UI noticeable change by completing this exercise, just the underlying mechanism that updates the UI will be modified.

For this exercise two files need to be modified, lovefield_service.js and query_builder_controller.js (in src/common/).

  1. Implement the already provided stub methods  observeStockClosingPrices and observeSectorClosingPrices in lovefield_service.js.
  1. Implement the already provided stub method startObserving_() in query_builder_controller.js, such that it registers two observers (use the methods implemented at the previous instruction). Within each observer, call updateStockGraph_ and updateSectorGraph_ respectively.
  1. Inspect the search() method in query_builder_controller.js. You will notice that it calls getStockClosingPrices and getSectorClosingPrices from the LovefieldService class and once the results are available it explicitly makes a call to update the UI. This is no longer necessary since our observers will perform this task, therefore delete both occurrences of promise callbacks then(...).
  2. The final step is to call startObserving_() method in the constructor of QueryBuilderController. Place this call right before the call to getStockList().

Reload the app and start interacting with the UI. Everything should be working as before, only this time query observers are utilized to update the UI.

Your sample web application is now successfully utilizing Lovefield as its data layer.

What we've covered

  1. Creating a database schema and opening a connection to the database.
  2. Executing INSERT queries, explicit/implicit transactions.
  3. Executing SELECT queries, specifying column filtering, simple and composite predicates, joining, grouping, sorting.
  4. Inspecting the execution plan of a query. Debugging slow queries.
  5. Parameterized queries (re-using queries by binding parameters to different values).
  6. Observing queries (getting notified every time the results of a given query change).

Next Steps

There are more useful Lovefield features that were not covered in this codelab.

If you would like to find out more about Lovefield please see the full developer documentation. You can post questions/comments at our public discussion forum and file bugs at our issue tracker.